Volume 20 Preprint 65
An investigation on the corrosion Zinc sheet in battery electrolytes
Keywords: Corrosion, potential, impedance, inhibition
The reduction of dissolution of Zinc sheet could be achieved by using SULFASALAZINE as inhibitor in 2M KCl. The computational quantum mechanical analysis for inhibition performance of the compound has been studied using values of EHOMO, ELUMO, Î”E and dipole moment, mass loss, gasometric and electrochemical studies. Potential-Current Curves manifested that the inhibitor follows mixed type of inhibition in industry environment. The adsorption of inhibitor on Zinc sheetsurface obeyed Temkinâ€™s adsorption isotherm.
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An investigation on the corrosion Zinc sheet in battery electrolytes
Centre for Innovative Manufacturing Research, VIT University, Vellore -632014, India
School of Mechanical Engineering, VIT University, Vellore -632014, India
*Corresponding Author (firstname.lastname@example.org)
The reduction of dissolution of Zinc sheet could be achieved by using
SULFASALAZINE as inhibitor in 2M KCl. The computational quantum mechanical analysis
for inhibition performance of the compound has been studied using values of EHOMO,
ELUMO, ∆E and dipole moment, mass loss, gasometric and electrochemical studies.
Potential-Current Curves manifested that the inhibitor follows
inhibition in industry environment. The adsorption of inhibitor on Zinc sheetsurface
obeyed Temkin’s adsorption isotherm.
eywords: Corrosion, potential, impedance, inhibition
Zinc sheet is an important category of metals due to its excellent mechanical
properties. It is widely used under different conditions in chemical and allied industries
in handling acidic, alkaline and salt solutions. Zinc
is used in automobile and battery
industries as bus bars, anodes, sacrificial anodes for petroleum industries, reaction
vessel and neutral chemical containers . When Zinc sheet is exposed to an industry
environment containing chloride ions that causes damage to the substrate, because of
their corrosive nature. Several methods were used to decrease the corrosion of Zinc
metals in acidic medium, but the use of inhibitors is most commonly used [6-10].
Organic compounds are widely used as corrosion inhibitors for steel in acidic
media [11-16]. The rate of corrosion decreases by adsorption of organic inhibitors on
the metal surface. The inhibitors block the active sites by displacing water molecules
and form a compact barrier film on the metal surface. The most of the organic
inhibitors are toxic, highly expensive and non environment friendly. Research activities
in recent times are geared towards developing the cheap, non-toxic drugs as
environment friendly corrosion inhibitors [17-18].
The aim of this work is to investigate the corrosion protection efficiency of
Sulfasalazine (SULFASALAZINE). For stainless steel corrosion in 2M KCl. The molecular
weight of the compound is 312.4.The authors came to know that no concrete report is
available for the use these compounds as corrosion inhibitors in 2M KCl. From the
literature the higher concentration of Na2SO4 acts as descaling chemical for stainless
steel used as cathodes for anodizing, battery electrodes in the presence of sulphur
containing organic compounds. Use of this inhibitor in 2M KCl will reduce the metal
loss in acid medium. The compound is large enough and sufficiently planar to block
more surface area on the Zinc surface. The inhibition efficiency was calculated using
techniques, and quantum mechanical methods. A definite correlation exists
different types of descriptors and measured corrosion inhibition efficiency for
Sulfasalazine using chemical and electrochemical techniques.
Zinc sheet specimens of the following composition was widely used. C= 0.02%,
Si = 0.25%, Ni = 1%, Cr = O% and Zn= balance with exposed area of 4 x 1 x 0.020 cm
were used for weight loss and gasometry measurements. A stainless steel cylindrical
rod of the same composition as above and embedded in araldite resin with an exposed
area of 0.3 cm2 was used for potential-current plots and EIS measurements.
Madhavan et al .
was mainly monitored by a weight
loss studies as reported by
Cathodic and anodic potential- current curves were recorded
galvano statically (1 mA s-1) using corrosion measurement system BAS Model: 1OOA
computerised electrochemical analyser (made in West Lafayette, Indiana) and PL-10
digital plotter (DMP-40 series, Houston Instruments Division). A platinum foil of 4 cm2,
was used as auxiliary and reference electrodes, respectively.
Double layer capacitance (Cdl) and charge transfer resistance values (R,) were obtained
using EIS measurements. A special computational program has been used to interpret
theoretical values of EHOMO, ELUMO, ∆E and dipole moment of SULFASALAZINE in 2M KCl
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
3.1 Weight loss and Gasometric measurements
Table 1 indicates
the results of inhibition efficiency for various concentrations
for the corrosion of Zinc sheet in 2M KCl determined from weight
loss and gasometric measurements. It is perceived that the inhibitor checks
dissolution of stainless steel in 2M KCl. Also, the coverage of the Zinc sheet by the
inhibitor is extensively more, giving rise to greater values of inhibition effect for all
concentrations of the inhibitor used. The structure of the compound is given in Figure
Figure 1.Structure of Sulfasalazine
The retardation on the dissolution of Zinc sheet in acid medium favoured
SULFASALAZINE were involving the following interactions:
1. The interaction between the lone pairs of electrons of the Sulphur and nitrogen
atoms of the thiouurea group of of SULFASALAZINE and the positively charged metal
2. The interactions between delocalized electrons of the nitrogen atoms in the quino
lino moiety and the positively charged metal surface of the green inhibitor .
It is found that there is a very good agreement between the values of inhibition
efficiency obtained by mass loss and gasometric studies.
Table 2(a) and 2(b) gave the results of potential-current curves such as Tafel slopes
( ba and bc ),corrosion current (I
) and corrosion potential (E
) and inhibition
efficiency obtained from galvanostatic polarization studies for Zinc sheet in 2M KCl
containing several concentrations of SULFASALAZINE. It can be envisioned from this
table that outcomes of Tafel slopes and I
are very much similar to those reported
SULFASALAZINE increases the values of ba and bc in irregular fashion alleviating that
the inhibition of corrosion of Zinc sheet in 2M KCl follows mixed type. Values of Ecorr is
shifted to positive direction in the presence of different concentrations of inhibitor.
This can be accredited to the establishment of firmly adsorbed inhibitor layer on the
steel surface. The presence of increasing quantity of inhibitor molecule ominously
values in the acids. It can also be found that most of the values of
inhibition efficiency obtained by weight loss and potential-curve studies agree very
3 Impedance studies
The results of charge transfer resistance (Rt) and double layer capacitance (Cdl)
acquired from EIS measurements are shown in table 4. It can be noticed from the table
that the values of Rt is perceived to increase with enhancement of SULFASALAZINE
concentrations in 2M KCl. It is observed that values of Cdl are lowered by increasing
concentrations of SULFASALAZINE in 2M KCl. This can be attributed to the strong
adsorption of the thiourea compound on the surface of Zinc sheet with increase in its
amount to the electrolyte containing sulphate ions.
A plot of surface coverage (ø) versus log C gave
a straight line signifying
adsorption of SULFASALAZINE on Zinc sheet surface in in 2M KCl observes Temkin’s
adsorption isotherm . This is main evidence to corrosion inhibition by this
compound, as a result of its adsorption on the surface of SS 304.
4 Quantum chemical studies:
Fig.2 Highly Occupied MO’s of SULFASALAZINE
Fig.3 Lowest unoccupied
MO’s of SULFASALAZINE
The computed quantum chemical indices such as energy of highest occupied
molecular orbital (EHOMO), energy of lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (ELUMO), LUMOHOMO, energy gap (∆E), dipole moment (), are summarized in Table 2. From figure 2
and 3, it can be observed that HOMO and LUMO energy orbital’s were strongly
distributed on amino groups and and pyran-diol for HOMO and
establishing that the Sulfasalazine (SULFASALAZINE) posses good adsorption centers
[19–20] and this is in agreement with publications of molecular orbital studies
confronting that π electrons and N atoms are liable for inhibition activity.
According to Hari Kumar et al , when a molecule has similar distribution of
electronic orbital’s, its inhibition performance could be associated with the energy
values of HOMO and LUMO and the difference in values between them. It has been
widely stated that, higher the value of EHOMO, larger is the easiness for an inhibitor to
electrons to vacant d orbital of Iron
atom and higher is its adsorption. Also,
lower ELUMO values, favour obtaining capacity of electrons by the inhibitor from Fe atom
to form feedback bonds. Hence the gap between HOMO–LUMO energy levels of
molecules was dignified as an vital data. Smaller the value of ∆E of an inhibitor, greater
is the inhibition efficiency of that compound. It is further claimed that, large values of
dipole moment will noticeably elevate the adsorption of the compound on stainless
1. SULFASALAZINE retards the dissolution of the corrosion of SSZinc sheetin 2M NaCl.
2. The inhibition of corrosion of Zinc sheet by the compound falls under mixed Type.
3. Rt and Cdl values studied from impedance measurements prove the impressive
performance of the inhibitor.
4. The adsorption of the compound on Zinc sheet surface follows Temkin’s adsorption
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Table 1. Values of inhibition efficiency for the corrosion of mild steel in 5M Na2SO4 in
the presence of different concentrations of SULFASALAZINE obtained from weight loss
and gasometric measurements.
Concentration Inhibition Efficiency
Table 2. Corrosion kinetic parameters of Zinc sheet in 2M
different concentrations of SULFASALAZINE
KCl in the presence of
obtained from galvanostaic polarization
Concentration Ecorr (mV)
Tafel slopes in mV in
Table 3.Impedance parameters for the corrosion of Zinc sheet in 2M KCl in the
presence of different concentrations of Sulfasalazine .
Table 4: Quantum chemical parameters for SULFASALAZINE